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Korea Forest Service Come nestle in bosom of nature,our green forest

Forest in Korea

River and Soil



In Korea, most of the major rivers flow into the Yellow Sea coursed on the natural geographical features of highlands in the east and lowlands in the west. The five largest rivers are Amnok-gang(790km), Duman-gang(521km), Han-gang(514km), Geum-gang(525km) and Nakdong-gang(525km).

The streams of Amnok-gang and Duman-gang form natural borders from China and Russia. The two rivers also flow into the Yellow Sea and the South Sea. Three other rivers flow into the Yellow sea except for Nakdong-gang which flows out to the South Sea. All rivers have abundant flow of water, and they tend to swell greatly with the added rainfall in summer. The sudden rise in water causes occasional flood.

As observed in most of the largest cities such as Seoul, Pyeongyang and Busan, major cities have been all built around the major rivers. However, sudden decrease in water transportation was seen, caused by developments of train and other land transportation. The rivers are now mainly used for irrigation and sewage. Dams have been established in most of the rivers for flood control and hydroelectric power.


About 66% of the Korean soil was formed in the Cenozoic Era and 70% of the bedrock is composited of granite and gneiss. The soil is very susceptible to erosion due to the severe changes in climate and downpours in summer. The varying climate also causes the regional differences in forest soil. Brown forest soil covers most of the Korean forests. In fact, it covers half of the total land. The red and yellow soil are another notable soil types mostly distributed in the southwest coastal area. Dark red soil and greyish brown soil are found in the southeast area while volcanic ash makes up most of Jeju and Ulleng islands.

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